A list of easily obtained, almost entirely English-language materials--useful points of departure for the further study of the history of singing.

Apel, Willi. Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1947.
Baur-Heinhold, Margarete, The Baroque Theatre, New York, NY:McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967.
Bekker, Paul, The Changing Opera. trans. by Arthur Mendel. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co, 1936.
Bekker, Paul. The Story of the Orchestra. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., 1936.
Blom, Eric, ed. Mozart's Letters. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books Inc., 1956.
Borden, Gloria J. and Harris, Katherine S. Speech Science Primer, 2nd Ed., Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1984.
Brody, Elaine. Music in Opera. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970.
Bukofzer, Manfred F. Music in the Baroque Era. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., 1947.
Carducci, Edgardo. "The Tenor Voice in Europe." Music and Letters, Vol. XI, No. 4 , (Oct. 1930), 318-323.
Celletti, Rodolfo. A History of Bel Canto. trans. by Frederick Fuller. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
Chrisiansen, Rupert. Prima Donna, A History. New York, NY: Viking Penguin Inc., 1985.
Collaer, Paul. A History of Modern Music. trans. by Sally Abeles. New York, NY: World Publishing Co.,1961.
Crocker, Richard L. A History of Musical Style. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966.
Crosten, William L. French Grand Opera. New York, NY: King's Crown Press, 1948.
Dorian, Frederick. The History of Music in Performance. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., 1942.
Duey, Phillip. Bel Canto in its Golden Age. New York, NY: King's Crown Press, 1951.
Ewen, David. Complete Book of the American Musical Theater. New York, N.Y: Henry Holt & Co., 1958.
Geiringer, Karl. Instruments in the History of Western Music. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Gleason, Harold. Music in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Rochester, NY: Levi's Music Stores, 1954.
Green, Abel, and Laurie, Joe, Jr. Show Biz: From Vaude to Video. New York, N. Y: Henry Holt & Co., 1951.
Green, Stanley. Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre. New York, N. Y: Dodd, Meade & Co. 1976.
Griffeth, Benjamin W., ed. The Beggar's Opera. Great Neck, NY: Barron's Educational Series, Inc. 1962.
Grout, Donald J. A Short History of Opera. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1947.
Henderson, William. Early History of Singing. New York, NY: Longmans, Green and Co., 1921.
Heriot, Angus. The Castrati in Opera. London: Secker and Warburg, 1956.
Hope-Wallace, Philip. A Picture History of Opera. London: E. Hulton and Company, Ltd., 1959.
Jespersen, Otto. Language, Its Nature, Development and Origin. New York NY: Henry Holt and Company, 1922.
Jourdain, Robert. Music, the Brain, and Ecstasy. New York NY: William Morrow & Company, Inc., 1997.
Kerman, Joseph. Opera as Drama. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1959.
Knapp, J. Merill. The Magic of Opera. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1972.
Kourney, Daniel J. Orchestral Performance Practices in the Nineteenth Century. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1981.
Lessing, George, ed. Handbuch des Opern-Repertoires. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1952.
MacClintock, Carol, ed. Readings in the History of Music in Performance. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1979.
Macgowan, Kenneth and Melnitz, William with Armstrong,Gordon. Golden Ages of the Theater. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
      Prentice Hall, Inc., 1979.
Miller, Richard. English, French, German and Italian Techniques of Singing. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977.
Nettle, Reginald. Seven Centuries of Popular Song. London: Phoenix House, Ltd., 1956.
Neumann, Frederick. Essays in Performance Practice. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1982.
Newton, George. Sonority in Singing. New York, NY: Vantage Press, Inc., 1984.
Pleasants, Henry. The Great American Popular Singers. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1966.
Pleasants, Henry. The Great Singers. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1966.
Rasponi, Lanfranco. The Last Prima Donnas. New York, NY: Limelight Editions, 1985.
Reese, Gustave. Music in the Middle Ages. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., 1940.
Robinson, Michael F. Opera Before Mozart. New York, NY: William Morrow & Co., 1967.
Rockwell, John. "Fine Singing Isn't Dead, It's Just an Art in Transition." The New York Times, (June 28, 1987): 19 & 30.
Rogers, Francis. "The Male Soprano." The Musical Quarterly, (July, 1919): 413.
Rosenthal, Harold and Warrack, John. Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1964.
Rosselli, John, The Opera Industry in Italy from Cimarosa to Verdi. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Rushmore, Robert. The Singing Voice. New York, NY: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1971.
Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980.
Stevens, Denis, ed. A History of Song. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1960.
Sanford, Sally Allis. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Vocal Style and Technique. Stanford University, Unpublished
      Doctoral Dissertation,1979.
Sargent, Sir Malcolm, ed. The Outline of Music. New York, NY: Arco Publishing Company, 1962.
Seagrave, Barbara Garvey and Thomas, Wesley. The Songs of the Minnesingers. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL,
      1966. (With recording).
Stubbs, C. E. The Adult Male Alto or Counter-Tenor Voice. New York, NY: Gray Publishing Co., 1906.
Wechsberg, Joseph. Verdi. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1974.
Whigham, Peter, ed. The Music of the Troubadours. Ross-Ericson Publishers, Santa Barbara, CA, 1979.
Wilkins, Nigel. Music in the Age of Chaucer. Rowman and Littlefield Inc., Totowa, NJ, 1979.
Worsthorne, Simon Towneley. Venetian Opera in the Seventeenth Century. London: Oxford University Press, 1954.


Several publishers and authors have been most gracious in permitting their material to be quoted. For these kindnesses, I gratefully acknowledge and thank:

Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.: Opera As Drama, by Joseph Kerman, copyright 1959.
Barron's Educational Series, Inc.: Benjamin Griffeth's The Beggar's Opera, copyright 1962.
Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.: The Magic of Opera, by J. Merrill Knapp, copyright 1972.
Oxford University Press: Instruments in the History of Western Music, by Karl Geiringer, copyright 1978.
The Putnam Publishing Group: Joseph Wechsberg's Verdi, copyright 1974.
Mr. David Silverberg: Elaine Brody's Music in Opera, copyright 1970.
Excerpts from John Rockwell's article, "Fine Singing Isn't Dead, It's Just an Art in Transition." copyright 1987, by The      New York Times Company, have been reprinted by permission.

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Copyright 1999, John Koopman. All rights reserved. No part of these websites, designated A BRIEF HISTORY OF SINGING and UNSUNG SONGS, or their contents may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means--electronic, photocopying or otherwise--without the written permission of the copyright holder. For information about the use of this material please contact the author through the Conservatory of Music, Lawrence University, Appleton, WI , (U.S.A) 54912-0599. Fax 920 832 6633.