Joy Jordan, Lawrence University (January 2010)
Artino, A. R. (2005), Review of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED499083)
The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) consists of 81, self-report items divided into two main categories: motivation and learning strategies (each of which has sub-categories). This questionnaire was published in 1991 by Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, and McKeachie. (Their 76-page manual for the use of the MSLQ is available on ERIC.) Since that time, the MSLQ has mostly been used as a research assessment tool (e.g., did a certain intervention have significant impact on student motivation?). More recently, though, teachers and college learning centers have used the MSLQ to make students more aware of their own learning. Artino provides an interesting and brief summary of the MSLQ (and the actual questionnaire is included in his paper).
Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., and Cocking, R.R. (eds.) (1999), How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Extensive overview of the research on learning. Main findings: 1) students enter the classroom with their own preconceptions—preconceptions that if not actively engaged might impede learning; 2) competence in a discipline comes from factual knowledge, factual and conceptual understanding in context, and ability to retrieve and apply knowledge; and 3) metacognitive teaching approaches allow students to set learning goals and practice self-regulation.
Dunlosky, J. and Metcalfe, J. (2009), Metacognition, Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
An accessible textbook on metacognition. Incorporates research studies (29 pages of references) within its discussion of metacognitive judgments, applications, and life-span development. Excellent introduction to metacognition, if you have time and interest.
Gourgey, A.F. (1999), “Teaching Reading from a Metacognitive Perspective,” Journal of College Reading and Learning, 30(1), 85 – 93.
Brief article that describes the characteristics of expert versus novice readers. Provides two classroom exercises designed for metacognitive growth (re: reading). Although the examples are from a “remedial” first-year college class, they can be generalized (I think) to any college classroom.
Halpern, D.F. and Hakel, M.D. (2003), “Teaching for Long-Term Retention and Transfer,” Change, July/August, 37 – 41.
Directly addresses the fallacy that anyone with a PhD can teach effectively. More importantly, provides ten basic (evidence-based) principles on long-term retention and transfer. Excellent big-picture resource for educators.
King, P.M. and Baxter Magolda, M.B. (1996), “A Developmental Perspective on Learning,” Journal on College Student Development, 37(2), 163 –173.
Thought-provoking article on both cognitive and personal development—and their interconnectedness. Provides suggestions to educators about an integrated view of student learning, including constructed knowledge, cognitive and personal learning, and the gradual development of this learning.
Kruger, J. and Dunning, D. (1999), “Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1121 –1134.
Describes three studies done on Cornell University students. These studies revealed (among other things) that “participants scoring in the bottom quartile on tests of humor, grammar, and logic grossly overestimated their test performance and ability.” These striking results are supplemented with an interesting discussion.
Svinicki, M.D. (2010), “Student Learning: From Teacher-Directed to Self-Regulation,” New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2010(123), 73 – 83.
Self-regulation (e.g., goal setting, behavior control, autonomy) is a key component of metacognition. Svinicki nicely summarizes the recent research on self-regulation. This summary includes a few answers and, perhaps more interestingly, many thought-provoking open questions.
Taylor, S. (1999), “Better Learning Through Better Thinking: Developing Students’ Metacognitive Abilities,” Journal of College Reading and Learning, 30(1), 34 – 45.
Makes the case for teaching students how to learn. Specifically addresses self-appraisal and self-management (two components of metacognition). Suggests a question-based teaching and learning approach.
Teagle Collegium on Student Learning
Describes the ACM-Teagle Collegium project from which my research developed. Also includes the final reports of all Collegium members (found through the “conference in fall 2010” link).
The Role of Metacognition in the Classroom (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/metacognition/index.html)
Although this website is couched in the larger topic of “The Role of Metacognition in Teaching Geoscience,” it applies to the teaching and learning of any discipline. It provides a nice introduction to metacognition, as well as a summary of recent research. Perhaps most importantly, it includes teaching strategies and activities (e.g., exam wrappers, reading reflections).